Caffeine is a chemical compound found naturally in such foods as coffee beans, tea, cacao beans (chocolate), kola nuts, maté, and guarana.
It is well known for its characteristic, intensely bitter taste, and as a stimulant of the central nervous system, heart, and respiration.
Caffeine is thought to act on the brain by blocking adenosine receptors. Adenosine, when bound to receptors of nerve cells, slows down nerve cell activity; this happens, among other times, during sleep. The caffeine molecule, being similar to adenosine, binds to the same receptors but doesn't cause the cells to slow down; instead, the caffeine blocks the receptors and thereby the adenosine action. The resulting increased nerve activity causes the release of the hormone epinephrine, which in turn leads to several effects such as higher heart rate, increased blood pressure, increased blood flow to muscles, decreased blood flow to the skin and inner organs, and release of glucose by the liver. In addition, caffeine, similar to amphetamines, increases the levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain.
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